Can I Trust My Memory?


Memory is one of the most fascinating and essential abilities of the brain and human experience. This allows us to remember past experiences, learn new skills and make informed decisions based on previous knowledge. However, Despite its importance, memory is not always as accurate as we would like to believe. Understanding whether we can trust our memory is crucial to deeply understanding how the human mind works.

Imagine that you feel confident in your ability to remember a specific event including all its details. However, you later discover that some of those memories are incorrect or even made up. This possibility may be disconcerting, but it is more common than it seems. Science has shown that our memories can be influenced and altered by different factors, from intense emotions to new and suggestive information.

In this article, we will explore the complexity of human memory and its reliability. We will analyze what memory is and how it works, from the initial encoding of information to its storage and subsequent retrieval. We will examine studies and experiments that have revealed the malleable nature of memories and the factors that can influence their accuracy. We will also offer practical tips to improve and keep your memory in good condition.

By better understanding how our memory works and recognizing its limitations, we can learn to rely on it more critically and effectively. This exploration will allow us to not only improve our ability to remember, but also develop greater understanding and empathy towards the experiences and memories of others.

What is memory?

Memory has been defined as an essential cognitive function or capacity that allows humans to store, retain and retrieve information over time; as if it were our hard drive. Through memory, we can remember past experiences, learn new skills, and apply previously acquired knowledge in future situations. Memory is not a single entity; Several types can be differentiated with specific characteristics and functions.

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We will begin by explaining the types of memory that exist. On the one hand, there is short-term memory, also known as working memory. It retains information for a short period of time, usually minutes or even seconds. It is essential for the execution of daily tasks such as momentarily remembering a phone number or following a conversation. The capacity of short-term memory is limited, and its information is quickly lost if it is not consolidated into long-term memory.

Long-term memory is memory that stores large amounts of information for long periods of time, from days to decades. In turn, this type of memory is subdivided into two main categories; episodic memory, the ability to remember events and personal experiences with a temporal and spatial context, and semantic memory, which involves general knowledge about the world such as facts, concepts and meanings.


The nature of memories

Memories are not exact copies of past events, but rather are understood as reconstructions that can be shaped over time. The formation of a memory begins with encoding, through which the brain perceives, interprets and stores information. This process can be influenced by factors such as attention, emotions, and the context in which the memory occurs.

Once encoded, the information is consolidated, whether in the short or long term. Regardless of the type of memory being generated, this process is not perfect. During consolidation, memories may become scrambled or distorted due to interference or the integration of new information. Recovering memories is also a reconstructive process. When we try to remember an event, the brain does not access an exact recording; instead, it reconstructs the memory from stored fragments, which can lead to inaccuracies.

There are different types of memory distortions. False memories are common examples, in which a person remembers events that never took place or remembers incorrect details captured in real events. Constructive memory implies that every time we remember something, this memory can be slightly modulated, depending on different influences from beliefs, expectations and new information. These processes show that, although memory is essential to our identity and daily functioning, it is not always completely reliable.

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Relevant studies and experiments

The reliability and nature of memory have been the subject of numerous studies, research and experiments in the field of psychology and neuroscience. Thus, the way in which our memories can be surprisingly fallible, even moldable, has been revealed.

1. False memories

One of the most influential studies in this field is Elizabeth Loftus’s work on false memories. Loftus demonstrated that human memory can be easily manipulated. In this experiment, he showed participants a series of slides of a car accident and then asked them questions that included misleading information. The results revealed that many participants remembered incorrect details based on the suggested information, demonstrating that memories can be altered by the way questions are asked.

2. Implanted memories

Another notable study is that of “implanted memories,” which led some participants to believe that they had experiences in their childhood that never actually occurred. By providing detailed and consistent descriptions and encouraging participants to imagine the events, the researchers were able to implant false memories in a significant percentage of the cases. These experiments highlight the malleable nature of memory and how it can be influenced by suggestion.

3. Eyewitness memory

Research has shown that eyewitness testimonies can be extremely unreliable, even when witnesses are certain of their memories. Factors such as stress, time since the event, and the influence of other people can distort memories. For example, in experiments where witnesses were presented with simulated crime scenes, memories of critical details varied significantly across participants and often did not match actual events.

4. Brain imaging techniques

Neuroscience studies have used brain imaging techniques to observe how memories are formed and retrieved. Research has identified key areas of the brain involved in memory, such as the hippocampus, which is crucial for long-term memory consolidation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques have shown that when people remember events, the same brain areas activated during the original experience also activate during memory retrieval, helping to explain why memories can feel so vivid. and real, even when they are inaccurate.


Factors that influence memory

Memory can be influenced by a variety and diversity of factors, both internal and dependent on the person and their personal or functional characteristics, both external and related to the context and environment in which we find ourselves. These factors affect the precision and reliability of memory, affecting the generation of false memories and their malleability.

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1. Stress and anxiety

Stress and anxiety can have a significant impact on memory. In high-stress situations, such as during an exam or a traumatic event, the brain may focus on emotional aspects rather than specific details which can lead to fragmented or distorted memories.

2. Lack of sleep

Lack of sleep is another critical factor that affects memory. Sleep plays an essential role in consolidating memories; During deep sleep, the brain processes and organizes the information acquired during the day. Sleep deprivation can interfere with this process, resulting in a decreased ability to remember information.

3. Aging

Aging also has a notable impact on memory. As people age, it is common to experience a decline in memory capacity, especially short-term memory and the ability to remember names and dates. However, semantic memory, or general knowledge, often remains relatively intact.

4. Neurological diseases

Neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia, can cause significant memory impairment. These conditions affect the areas of the brain involved in memory and can lead to progressive loss of memories.

5. Technology and digital information

Finally, technology and digital information also play a role in how we remember things. Reliance on digital devices to store information can weaken our ability to remember data without help, a phenomenon known as the “Google effect.”. However, these devices can also serve as useful tools to strengthen and improve our memory if used properly.


Our memory is a powerful but imperfect tool. Although it allows us to store and retrieve vital information, it is also susceptible to distortions and errors. Understanding its limitations and the factors that affect it helps us to be more critical and careful with our memories. By adopting strategies to improve memory and being aware of its vulnerabilities, we can become more confident in our ability to remember accurately.