Traditionally, logical-mathematical intelligence, along with linguistic intelligence, have been considered representative of the concept of intelligence in general. That is why they have predominated in the formal educational system and the academic environment. This type of intelligence is highly complex and goes far beyond mathematics. In addition, it involves the ability to reason and establish relationships, among others. If you want to discover more about this intelligence, be sure to read this PsychologyFor article:** Logical-mathematical intelligence: characteristics, examples and activities to improve it.**

**Logical-mathematical intelligence** is a cognitive capacity characterized by the ability to analyze, evaluate, and manipulate abstract symbols and logical relationships. This form of intelligence, as proposed by psychologist Howard Gardner in his theory of multiple intelligences, encompasses skills such as deductive reasoning, numerical computation, and problem-solving within mathematical and scientific domains.

## What is logical-mathematical intelligence

Logical-mathematical intelligence is one of the eight intelligences identified by psychologist Howard Gardner in his **Theory of multiple intelligences This new conception of intellect challenged the concept of unity in intelligence, prevalent in the Western academic system.**

### Logical-mathematical intelligence: definition

What is logical-mathematical intelligence? Logical-mathematical intelligence is the ability to use numbers effectively, as well as apply analysis and reasoning appropriately. This intelligence is related to abstract and scientific thinking and encompasses both mathematical ability and logical ability

Mathematics studies abstraction, relationships and numerical operations, while logic refers to the processes of analysis and reasoning. Both skills are closely related, however, they are not inseparable. Therefore, a person can have a logical ability that is much superior to mathematical ability and vice versa. The logical-mathematical intelligence It constitutes a complex skill and is made up of mathematical calculations, logical thinking, inductive and deductive reasoning, problem solving, identification of patterns and relationships, formulation and verification of hypotheses.

Logical-mathematical intelligence is manifested from childhood, given that the existence of a innate sense of quantity and early estimation. Subsequently, logical, abstract and mathematical thinking is acquired through learning. This capacity involves both linguistic, visual-spatial, planning, and working memory skills. The competency complexity of this intelligence explains that its brain location is located in various areas of both hemispheres including the left parietal lobe, the temporal and occipital association areas, as well as the frontal lobe.

## Characteristics of Logical-Mathematical Intelligence

### Analytical Thinking

Logical-mathematical intelligence is characterized by analytical thinking, the ability to break down complex problems into simpler components and systematically evaluate their relationships and implications. Individuals with strong logical-mathematical intelligence excel at identifying patterns, detecting inconsistencies, and formulating logical arguments based on evidence and reasoning.

### Numerical Fluency

Numerical fluency is another hallmark of logical-mathematical intelligence, involving proficiency in mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Individuals with this form of intelligence demonstrate facility with numbers, equations, and mathematical concepts, enabling them to solve arithmetic problems, analyze quantitative data, and interpret mathematical models with ease.

### Problem-Solving Skills

Logical-mathematical intelligence is closely linked to problem-solving skills, the ability to devise strategies and algorithms to overcome challenges and achieve desired outcomes. Individuals with strong problem-solving abilities can approach complex problems methodically, apply logical reasoning and computational techniques, and generate innovative solutions to novel or unfamiliar problems.

People with a high development of this intelligence generally present a series of characteristics. Below we list the main characteristics of logical-mathematical intelligence:

- Mastery of the notions of quantity, time and cause and effect.
- Ability to find a solution of a logical nature to the problems. This resolution process can be very quick.
- Management with numeracy in general and mathematical operations.
- Elevated analysis and reasoning skills
- They enjoy conducting experiments and drawing conclusions from them.
- Ability to formulate and verify different hypotheses.
- Ability to draw relationships and connections between different elements, which is related to its high capacity for classification and categorization.
- Ease in estimating and remembering different numerical signs.
- They usually resort to the use of lists and schemes in the organization of information.
- They are curious about natural phenomena and in their daily lives, carrying out research, deductions and searching for solutions or answers.
- They are people who generally present a rational thinking and a scientific methodology that they also apply in their daily life, in decision making, etc.
- People with this type of intelligence are usually organized, methodical, with the ability to plan and solve problems in everyday life. They are also characterized by being curious and inquisitive.
- Mental calculation ability and monetary.
- Ease and interest in solving puzzles, puzzles, problems and mental challenges.
- Good performance in games of skill that involve strategy.
- Development of metacognition, that is, awareness, supervision and control over thinking and learning processes, as well as over their own performance and performance. This metacognitive capacity facilitates the detection of one’s own errors and the extraction of maximum performance from cognitive skills.

### Logical-mathematical intelligence: professions

Due to the characteristics of logical-mathematical intelligence, the jobs that are associated with this capacity are those in the field of engineering, economics, science and research, mathematics, physics, chemistry, accounting, etc.

## Manifestations in Everyday Life

### Scientific Inquiry

Logical-mathematical intelligence is evident in scientific inquiry and experimentation, where individuals employ logical reasoning and mathematical methods to formulate hypotheses, design experiments, and analyze empirical data. Scientists, engineers, and researchers draw upon their logical-mathematical intelligence to investigate natural phenomena, develop theories, and advance knowledge in various fields of inquiry.

### Financial Management

Logical-mathematical intelligence is also valuable in financial management and decision-making, as individuals use numerical analysis and logical reasoning to budget expenses, calculate risks, and make investment decisions. Financial analysts, accountants, and economists rely on their logical-mathematical skills to interpret financial data, forecast trends, and optimize resource allocation in business and finance.

## Implications for Learning and Education

### STEM Education

Logical-mathematical intelligence is a central focus of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education, which emphasizes the development of analytical thinking, problem-solving skills, and mathematical proficiency. STEM curricula provide opportunities for students to engage in hands-on experimentation, mathematical modeling, and collaborative problem-solving activities that cultivate their logical-mathematical intelligence and prepare them for careers in STEM-related fields.

### Differentiated Instruction

Educators recognize the diversity of intelligences among students and strive to accommodate different learning styles and strengths, including logical-mathematical intelligence. Differentiated instruction techniques such as problem-based learning, inquiry-based instruction, and mathematical modeling projects allow students to explore mathematical concepts and scientific principles in ways that align with their logical-mathematical strengths and interests.

## Logical-mathematical intelligence: examples

To better understand logical-mathematical intelligence, we will present examples. Some people who have stood out throughout history for their extreme logical-mathematical intelligence are the following:

**Katherine Johnson, Dorothy Vaughan and Mary Jackson:**They were a group of African American women mathematicians. His calculations at NASA were decisive for reaching the Moon. The problems and operations were carried out almost entirely by hand, which is why they were nicknamed “human computers.” In addition, they had to constantly face the difficulties of being women and black in the world of science.**Sofia Kovalevskaya**: She was a Russian mathematician of gypsy ethnicity. She made great contributions to the field of analysis, mechanics and equations. She was the first woman to obtain a position as a university professor in Europe, in 1881.**Alan Turing**: He was a British mathematician, considered one of the precursors of computing. He worked during the Second World War on the deciphering of Nazi codes, thanks to which it is estimated that the duration of this war period was shortened by between two and four years. Likewise, he made great contributions in the field of artificial intelligence.

As for everyday examples, people with this intelligence have the ability to calculate the cost of the purchase or how much change should be when paying, as well as being able to easily make lists and plan their agenda.

## Logical-mathematical intelligence: activities

Logical-mathematical intelligence is not only useful in the academic and scientific fields, but it facilitates the ability to function in the world, as well as to understand it. Given the need to stimulate this capacity, it is interesting to know how to develop logical-mathematical intelligence in adults. Below we present a series of activities to develop logical-mathematical thinking and games to enhance logical-mathematical intelligence:

**Make puzzles and puzzles:**These activities should not be limited only to the childhood stage. Currently there are a wide variety of games to enhance logical-mathematical intelligence aimed at adulthood that can help in the stimulation and maintenance of this ability.**Use diagrams and lists on a daily basis:**Starting to make use of these resources both in the organization and planning of day-to-day tasks, and in the decision-making process, encourages the development of more logical-mathematical thinking.**Carry out scientific visits:**Going to places such as museums or observatories can promote interest and learning in this field.- Ask yourself questions: Another exercise to develop logical-mathematical intelligence is to ask questions about a series of everyday phenomena or the functioning of certain objects that we have never reflected on due to their everyday nature. You can make a series of hypotheses and then search for information about them.
**Discover:**Learning through discovery is also recommended for stimulating this intelligence. An example of this would be trying to intuit how an object works, then dismantle it and carry out an analysis of its parts.**Reflect**: Currently in the information age it is common to ask a question but not stop to think about it, since we can search for the answer in seconds through technology. It is positive to reflect for a few minutes about what we have considered, try to intuit the answer, draw relationships or connections with the knowledge we already have, and mentally establish a series of hypotheses or deductions before finding out the solution by other means.**Calculate**: make the effort to make and face small daily calculations mentally, such as the purchase price and the exchange value, the distance traveled in km over the course of a day, how much each person has to pay at a group dinner , etc. are exercises that help develop logical-mathematical intelligence.**Develop curiosity**: encourage curiosity about daily events, as well as look for concepts or ideas from the logical-mathematical field that appear in conversations or readings to incorporate them into our knowledge.**Play logical and/or mathematical games**: Currently there are a large number of board games that promote the development of this ability, as well as strategy and logic games. In addition, they are a good choice, since there are both individual and collective options. Playing with other people can be more enjoyable on various occasions, as well as making it possible to learn from other people. Today there are also a large number of escape rooms, in which a series of puzzles and logic problems must be solved as a group. Here you will find games to improve memory.

## Logical-mathematical intelligence test

Logical-mathematical intelligence is one of the 8 intelligences of Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences:

- Linguistic Intelligence
- Logical-Mathematical Intelligence
- Visual-Spatial Intelligence
- Kinesthetic or Body-Kinetic Intelligence
- Musical intelligence
- Interpersonal intelligence
- Intrapersonal intelligence
- Naturalistic Intelligence

Logical-mathematical intelligence is a foundational aspect of human cognition that underlies analytical thinking, numerical fluency, and problem-solving skills. Individuals with strong logical-mathematical intelligence excel in fields such as mathematics, science, engineering, and finance, where analytical reasoning and computational proficiency are valued. By fostering the development of logical-mathematical intelligence through education and learning experiences, individuals can enhance their cognitive abilities, adapt to evolving challenges, and contribute to advancements in science, technology, and society.

This article is merely informative, at PsychologyFor we do not have the power to make a diagnosis or recommend a treatment. We invite you to go to a psychologist to treat your particular case.

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#### Bibliography

- Ferrándiz, C., Bermejo, R., Sainz, M., Ferrando, M., & Prieto, MD (2008). Study of logical-mathematical reasoning from the model of multiple intelligences.
*Anales de Psicología/Annals of Psychology*24(2), 213-222. - Gardner, H. (2003). Intelligence in seven steps.
*New Horizons For Learning, Creating the Future</em.* - Serra-Grabulosa, JM, Adan, A., Perez-Pamies, M., Lachica, J., & Membrives, S. (2010). Neural bases of numerical processing and calculation.
*Neurology Magazine*50(1), 39-46.