Moebius Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms And Treatments

Moebius syndrome, also known as Möbius syndrome, is a rare neurological disorder whose symptoms already appear in newborn babies. It is a pathology that affects the movement and control of various muscles of the face and also causes other important problems in other parts of the body.

Below we will see what is known about the causes of Moebius syndrome, what its main symptoms are and what type of treatments are recommended to treat patients with this neurological pathology.

What is Moebius syndrome?

It is known as Moebius syndrome. a congenital neurological disease that is considered very rare due to the scarcity of known cases of patients with symptoms that fit the diagnostic criteria.

The main effect of this pathology is the absence or underdevelopment of nerves linked to certain facial muscles, which is usually reflected in total or partial facial paralysis and, in some cases, deformities in various parts of the body.

Symptoms of Moebius syndrome

As we have seen, the main symptoms of this pathology have to do with poor control of facial muscles, although they are not the only manifestations of the disease. This is a more detailed explanation of the signs of pathology:

1. Problems when trying to move facial muscles

The deterioration of the cranial nerves, especially the VI and VII, means that the movement of the eyelids cannot be controlled well and that the repertoire of facial expressions is limited. The face seems to have been “frozen.”

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2. Hypotonia

Motor nerve problems cause that many muscles degrade from not being used.

3. Eye coordination failures

To function well, the eyes need a high degree of coordination in the work of small muscles of the face, so small errors in these movements are very noticeable in this part of the body. Besides, deterioration of the VI cranial nerve can cause strabismus.

4. Difficulty coordinating lips and tongue

Another typical symptom of Moebius syndrome, which also usually causes dysarthria (difficulty in pronunciation and speech in general.

5. Foot malformations

Many people with Moebius syndrome place your feet incorrectly when walkingorienting the plants towards the interior, which ends up generating malformations.

6. Socialization problems

This consequence derives from difficulties in the movement of the muscles of the face, something that has a great impact on social life by not using normal facial expressions.

7. Alterations in swallowing

Swallowing is difficult, due to problems in the movement of the tongue. Choking and coughing are common.

8. Dry mouth and oral diseases

By not closing your mouth properly, it dries out and germs proliferate. This, for example, can cause infections, malformations or cavities and other dental and gum problems.

9. Breathing problems

Jaw malformations and the inability to close the mouth properly cause some complications when breathing, especially during sleep.

Causes of this pathology

It is known that Moebius syndrome It especially affects the VI and VII cranial nerves., although they can also damage other cranial nerves that leave the brain stem. However, the exact biological mechanism that produces this degradation is not known (partly because it is a rare pathology).

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However, there are some theories about what could be happening to the health of patients who have this neurological disorder.

For example, although the heritability of this syndrome is low, which means that it normally occurs in babies of fathers and mothers who do not manifest the symptoms or with fathers or mothers who express them, REV3L and PLXND genes could be involved.

It has also been discussed that Moebius syndrome could be caused by problems during intrauterine development associated with environmental or genetic alterations, such as the cessation of blood flow to the brain of the embryo.

Treatments

Currently, there is no known intervention method that guarantees with a good margin of probability a definitive cure for Moebius syndrome. Thus, the treatments used with patients who present this pathology are aimed not at cure, but to mitigating the negative impact of symptoms and to aid for socialization and labor insertion.

In this sense, interdisciplinary work is necessary between different health professionals, such as neuropsychologists, neurologists, speech therapists, pediatricians, and clinical and health psychologists, among others. In psychotherapy, you can work through cognitive-behavioral therapy to modify limiting beliefs and improve patients’ self-esteem, as well as to train them in social skills, which together with the work of speech therapists will help break the isolation that they often suffer. this people.

Surgery can also be used to correct malformations that occur, although always trying correct bad postural habits so that no more appear in the future.