Types Of Stroke (definition, Symptoms, Causes And Severity)

Today, the word stroke is not unknown to the majority of the population Cerebrovascular accidents or strokes are one of the main causes of death in the world, being in our country the second largest cause of death and the first in women over 75 years of age, as well as the main cause of disability.

This phenomenon is due to an obstruction in the circulatory system in the brain, which causes death due to asphyxiation of part of the brain. But not all strokes occur in the same way or for the same causes. In order to better understand this phenomenon, in this article we are going to analyze the different types of stroke that exist.

Stroke or cerebrovascular accident

We understand a stroke or cerebrovascular accident to be the death or alteration of brain tissue caused by obstructions or ruptures of the blood vessels responsible for supplying them. The effects of these phenomena will vary greatly depending on the area that is affected, and can cause anything from death to the loss of abilities such as sight or movement of part of the body.

In general, the factors that lead to the onset of stroke are silent (special caution must be taken with hypertension and diabetes, as well as tobacco and alcohol consumption) and the person who suffers from it usually does not realize the possibility of suffering from it.

Furthermore, a large part of the population does not know the main warning signs that could be warning of the existence of a stroke. There are three very relevant symptoms whose joint presence is usually linked to suffering from a stroke: the existence of hemiparesis or sudden paralysis of one side of the face (it is common to be able to see it in the smile), the existence of sudden speech alterations (speech uncoordinated, illogical, unintelligible or bizarre) and weakness or hypotonia (even paralysis) of one or more extremities of a hemibody.

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It is essential to go to medical services as quickly as possible, since early care will prevent or reduce the death of brain tissue. Even if it does not cause the death of the patient, it is likely that it will generate some type of disability (although in many cases the lost skills could be recovered).

Types of stroke

As we have said, not all strokes have the same characteristics, occur in the same way or are due to the same causes. That is why we have different classifications regarding the types of stroke.

In general, The existence of two large groups has been considered, within which we can find various typologies

1. Hemorrhagic stroke

Hemorrhagic stroke or cerebral hemorrhage is that type of stroke that occurs when one or more blood vessels rupture, flooding the brain tissue with blood and causing suffocation. And to this damage we must add the pressure that the accumulation of blood inside the skull can cause. They can not only occur in the brain but also at the level of the meninges and within the cerebral ventricles.

Different types of hemorrhagic strokes can be found, which can be caused in different circumstances.

1.1. Stroke due to traumatic brain injury

A traumatic brain injury can in turn cause a stroke in the form of a cerebral hemorrhage when blood vessels in the brain break.

1.2. Aneurysm stroke

Another common cause of cerebral hemorrhage is the presence of aneurysms, localized widenings of the blood vessels that occur due to weakness of the blood vessels. These are protrusions filled with blood that, since they have a weakened wall, are very easy to break due to the pressure exerted by the blood flow.

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1.3. Stroke due to AVM and other malformations

There are different disorders and syndromes of genetic origin that cause the blood vessels of the brain to not develop correctly or to be very fragile, as occurs in arteriovenous malformation syndrome, which can make it easy for them to break

2. Ischemic stroke

Also called a cerebral infarction, an ischemic stroke occurs when one of the arteries in the brain is obstructed, resulting in interrupts blood flow to part of the brain This means that the brain tissue does not have the oxygen and nutrients necessary to survive, dying in a short time. In general, when we talk about strokes we usually refer to these types, the most common being the large types.

Within ischemic strokes we can find several types.

2.1. Stroke due to cerebral embolism

In a stroke, the element that causes the artery to be blocked comes from outside the nervous system, traveled through the blood until it reaches said system and causes ischemia if it is larger than the blood vessel through which it passes. This is usually a blood clot that breaks away from its place of origin.

2.2. Stroke due to cerebral thrombosis or atherothrombotic

In this type of ischemic stroke The blockage occurs within the blood vessels of the brain itself It is usually common in people with arteriosclerosis.

23. Lacunar or small vessel stroke

Lacunar stroke is a subtype of ischemic stroke in which the obstructed blood vessel is an arteriole, part of the branches of the arteries that reach the different points of the brain. The amount of tissue that dies is usually small, but it can also have serious effects depending on the area in which it occurs. Likewise, it is also possible that no type of symptom appears, and the lesion may remain silent.

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2.4. Transient ischemic attack

This type of ischemic stroke occurs when one of the blood vessels becomes blocked They irrigate a part of the brain, but the system itself is able to overcome it so that the symptoms occur in a short period of time that can last up to 24 hours.

However, although it resolves on its own, it is usually indicative of the possibility of developing a more severe and permanent stroke, making it necessary for the affected person to carry out prevention strategies and check their health status. It would be similar to the relationship between angina and a heart attack.

2.5. Hemodynamic stroke

This is a type of stroke in which a decrease in blood pressure level occurs which causes the blood to not arrive with enough force to properly irrigate the entire brain. Although there may not be an obstruction as such, it is considered an ischemic stroke.

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