What Is The So-called Manic Depressive Psychosis?

What is the so-called Manic Depressive Psychosis?

Maybe you’ve heard of it; The name manic-depressive psychosis may not sound familiar to you, but if we say bipolar disorder, you will surely know what we mean. The name “manic-depressive” comes from the fact that this disorder intersperses manic and hypomanic episodes with depressive symptoms, which can significantly alter the patient’s daily life.

In today’s article We are going to analyze what manic depressive psychosis consists of and what are its causes and treatment.

What is manic depressive psychosis?

We have already mentioned that it is also known as bipolar disorder, but the name “manic depressive psychosis” was coined by Emile Kraepelin in his book Psychiatry, a work from 1896. In it, Dr. Kraepelin distinguished bipolar disorder from schizophrenia, since, unlike the latter, the former did not deteriorate over time and, furthermore, its main characteristic was the alternation of depression and manic episodes.

Some of the symptoms of manic depressive psychosis are sudden changes in emotional state, sleep disorders, anger attacks, psychosis or suicidal ideation. Due to the severity of the symptoms, it can profoundly affect the patient’s life, and treatment includes medication and therapy, aimed at controlling the explosion of symptoms.

What is the severity of manic depressive psychosis?

This disorder is categorized in the DSM-5 and ICD-11 diagnostic classifications (American Psychiatric Association and World Health Organization, respectively). The estimated percentage of affectation of the world population is 3.5%, and it generally begins during adolescence or early or mid-adulthood. It is much rarer for bipolar disorder to appear beyond the age of 50; In these cases, it is advisable to look for an organic origin.

You may be interested:  What is Gestational Grief and What Are Its Effects?

In our world, it is quite common for people who have sudden mood swings to be labeled “bipolar.” However, we are talking about a serious disorder, with a set of symptoms that extend beyond sudden mood changes. It is necessary to remember, therefore, that bipolar disorder or manic-depressive psychosis requires a diagnosis from a professional.

Sudden mood changes are among the symptoms of manic-depressive psychosis although, as we have already seen, they are not the only ones. People affected by this disorder go from joy to sadness very quickly, episodes among which are moments of absolute normality. It has been proven that depressive episodes tend to last much longer than manic episodes; The condition becomes serious when delusional or hallucinatory symptoms appear, which in moments of euphoria is related to megalomaniacal aspects, while in depressive episodes, with catastrophic thoughts.

The consequences in the lives of people who suffer from this disorder can be serious, since their mental state progressively deteriorates. In extreme cases, the person may lose contact with reality. The fluctuation of mood between two extremes makes diagnosis difficult, which is why bipolar disorder is one of the mental problems that takes the longest to identify.

What are the symptoms?

Below, we present some of the most frequent symptoms; Keep in mind that they may vary depending on the episode in which the affected person is.

Hypomanic episode

In this stage, the person feels an increase in self-esteem or, directly, feelings related to one’s own greatness. On the other hand, your activity increases, so you may be much more communicative and, in addition, your need for sleep decreases. The person also has the feeling that his mind is working at high speed; Difficulty concentrating and impulsiveness appear (for example, when shopping or having sex).

You may be interested:  Crovitz Technique: What it is and How it is Used in Mental Health

depressive episode

The hypomanic episode is followed by the depressive episode, which will last at least a couple of weeks. In this stage, the person feels depressed, loses interest in almost all entertainment and activities and even loses appetite. Sleep problems continue, whether hypersomnia (excessive sleeping) or insomnia.

On the other hand, at this stage people affected by the disorder may feel guilty or believe they are worthless, and their ability to make decisions and concentrate may be impaired. Finally, suicidal ideation is common.

What causes manic depressive psychosis?

Experts do not have a consensus when it comes to defining a specific cause, since bipolar disorder or manic-depressive psychosis is extremely complex. Precisely because of its complexity, several factors may intervene, which we summarize below.

First, genetic tendencies, since bipolar disorder is one of the mental illnesses that is most frequently passed from parents to children. However, it is important to note that it is not necessary to have an affected relative for the disorder to be diagnosed. Second, there are operating variables in neurotransmitters, the endocrine system or circadian rhythms. Childhood trauma or stressful situations such as a death or separation have a great influence on the development of manic-depressive psychosis.

Third, and according to cognitive-behavioral theories, there are so-called “vulnerability” factors, so bipolar disorder is an evidently multifactorial problem, which encompasses the social and the biological.

Which is the treatment?

The main treatment includes psychotropic drugs that stabilize the patient’s emotional state (for example, lithium or valproic acid). On the other hand, antipsychotics are also used, which control manic episodes, and antidepressants, for depressive moments.

You may be interested:  The 7 Most Important Comorbidities of Social Phobia

Psychoeducation of the patient and family members is also of utmost importance, in addition to interpersonal therapies that help the affected person to better manage situations with a high degree of stress; without forgetting, of course, family therapy. There are especially serious cases, where manic and/or depressive episodes are very intense and present an obvious danger to the people who suffer from them and/or to third parties. In these cases, entry is necessary.