Smoking: What Is It And What Effects Does It Have?


From bar terraces, breaks at work to thousands of scenes in movies and series, exposure to tobacco is something completely normalized in our Western and European society. Smoking tobacco is part of the set of normal habits among people, and no one is surprised to see another person smoking, unless it is in absolutely exorbitant quantities.

This normalization has made us forget that tobacco has addictive components like any other drug. The nicotine that makes it up is responsible for making smoking become a strategy against stress and anxiety for many people, making wanting to smoke cigarettes again become a necessity in the long term.

Understand that, In some cases, tobacco consumption is not understood as something purely occasional or social, but rather becomes a necessity, it gives us clues about smoking ; addiction to tobacco and nicotine. And this, like any other addiction, can have devastating impacts on the lives of smokers and those around them. In this article, we will understand in more depth what smoking is, along with its effects, factors and different prevention strategies.

Understanding smoking

Smoking is a chronic addiction characterized by the regular and compulsive consumption of tobacco products, mainly cigarettes. When we talk about smoking tobacco, most people imagine occasional or daily tobacco consumption, but never seen as an addiction problem. If we think about the problems associated with tobacco, all those related to physical and respiratory health come to mind, but where is the psychological component?

More than just occasional smoking, smoking implies a physical and psychological dependence on tobacco, leading to continued consumption despite knowing its negative effects on health. From a medical point of view, smoking is defined by the habitual consumption of cigarettes or other tobacco products that contain nicotine, a highly addictive substance. Nicotine acts on the central nervous system, producing a feeling of pleasure and well-being that leads the individual to seek repeated consumption. This action is mainly responsible for tobacco addiction.

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Smoking not only affects the active smoker, but also those who are exposed to secondhand smoke, known as passive smokers. This smoke contains thousands of toxic chemicals, many of which are carcinogenic, and can cause serious health problems in those who inhale it regularly, including children, the elderly, and people with respiratory illnesses.

In terms of prevalence, smoking is a global public health problem. Although tobacco use rates have decreased in some developed countries due to awareness campaigns and anti-smoking policies, it remains a major challenge in many regions of the world, especially in developing countries where regulations are less strict and smoking continues. being socially accepted in certain cultural contexts.


Health effects of smoking

Smoking can have a devastating impact on an individual’s health, with consequences ranging from short-term effects to long-term chronic risks. These effects are due to the action of the numerous toxic chemicals present in tobacco smoke, which, when inhaled, affect practically all organs and systems of the human body.

1. Serious cardiovascular diseases

First, smoking is closely linked to a number of serious and life-threatening diseases. These include cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, and aortic aneurysms.

2. Increased risk of cancer

Smoking also significantly increases the risk of developing various types of cancer, including lung, mouth, throat, esophagus, bladder, and pancreatic cancers, among others. Additionally, smoking is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a progressive condition that makes breathing difficult and can lead to disability and premature death.

3. Mental and emotional health

The effects of smoking are not limited to physical problems, but also affect mental and emotional health. Smokers are at increased risk of developing anxiety disorders and depression, and often experience higher levels of perceived stress compared to non-smokers. This relationship between smoking and mental health is complex and multifaceted, with biological, psychological and social factors contributing to their interaction.

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4. Short-term symptoms

In the short term, smoking can cause bothersome symptoms such as cough, nasal congestion, fatigue, and decreased physical performance. Additionally, tobacco smoke irritates the airways and can trigger or worsen symptoms in people with chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma. Smokers also have a higher susceptibility to respiratory infections, such as colds and pneumonia.


Factors that influence smoking

Smoking is a complex phenomenon influenced by a variety of factors that go beyond simple individual choice. These factors can be classified into three main categories: social, psychological and biological.

1. Social and cultural factors

First, social and cultural factors play a significant role in the prevalence of smoking. Attitudes toward tobacco, social norms, and the cultural acceptability of smoking can influence a person’s decision to start or quit smoking For example, in some communities or social groups, smoking may be considered a socially acceptable or even desirable activity, which may increase social pressure for people to start or continue smoking.

2. Economic factors

In addition, economic factors also influence smoking. The cost of tobacco, taxes on tobacco products, and access to healthier alternatives can affect the prevalence of smoking in a given population. Pricing policies that increase the cost of cigarettes, for example, may discourage some people from smoking or encourage them to quit.

3. Psychological factors

On the other hand, psychological factors play an important role in the development and persistence of smoking. Nicotine addiction is a central component, as the chemical creates a physical and psychological dependence in those who use it regularly. Additionally, smoking is often associated with stress management, emotional regulation, and self-image, which can lead people to turn to tobacco as a way to cope with emotional or social difficulties.

4. Biological and genetic factors

Finally, there are biological factors that can increase a person’s vulnerability to smoking. Genetics plays a role in individual susceptibility to nicotine addiction and the body’s response to the effects of tobacco. Additionally, factors such as prenatal exposure to tobacco and the influence of the family environment can increase a person’s risk of developing smoking habits in the future.


Smoking prevention and treatment

The prevention and treatment of smoking are crucial aspects in the fight against this addiction and in the promotion of public health. Addressing smoking requires a comprehensive approach that combines primary, secondary and tertiary prevention measures, as well as strategies aimed at both smokers and the community at large.

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1. Primary prevention

Primary prevention focuses on preventing people from starting to smoke in the first place. Tobacco control policies, such as banning tobacco advertising and promotion, taxes on tobacco products, and implementing smoke-free environments, are critical to reducing the attractiveness and accessibility of tobacco, especially among youths. Education and awareness about the risks of smoking also play an important role in prevention, providing information and resources to help people make healthy choices.

2. Secondary prevention

Secondary prevention focuses on identifying and intervening early in smoking among those who have already started smoking. This involves early detection of tobacco addiction and provision of effective interventions to help smokers quit. Smoking cessation programs, which offer psychological support, counseling and pharmacological treatment, are an integral part of secondary prevention and can significantly increase tobacco cessation rates.

3. Tertiary prevention

Tertiary prevention focuses on reducing the harm caused by smoking among those who are already smokers. This includes providing access to quality healthcare services to treat smoking-related illnesses, as well as offering rehabilitation programs and ongoing support to help former smokers maintain long-term abstinence.

4. Continuity and effort

Importantly, tobacco prevention and treatment are ongoing efforts that require the collaboration of multiple sectors, including government, health professionals, community organizations, and society as a whole. By addressing tobacco addiction in a comprehensive and multifaceted way, we can work toward a future where tobacco is a relic of the past and health and well-being are key priorities for all.


In conclusion, smoking is a complex addiction with serious consequences for physical, mental and social health. However, through comprehensive approaches that address social, psychological and biological factors, along with effective prevention and treatment policies, we can reduce its prevalence and mitigate its impact on society. It is crucial to work together to promote tobacco-free lifestyles and improve the quality of life for all.