The 10 Types Of Psychological Report (and Their Characteristics)

Types of psychological report

In the field of psychology, psychological reports are one of the most important tools that a psychologist must know how to use in order to carry out his profession with solvency, since in many cases the psychological report will be the one that sets the guidelines to be followed by the psychologist. as his consultants.

A psychological report is an instrument that is used in psychology in order to present a series of results obtained through a psychological evaluation of a person in different contexts (clinical, human resources, educational, expert and road safety). All of them must contain all the information that the psychologist has collected during the evaluation process.

This article will briefly explain the main types of psychological report What there is and what they are used for.

What are the main types of psychological report?

There are various types of psychological report, being divided according to various causes: according to the means of transmission (oral or written report); depending on the objective and purpose of the evaluation (assessment report, selection or orientation or intervention); finally, according to the context of its application (selection, clinical, educational, expert or traffic and safety report).

Any of the different types of psychological report must follow a series of fundamental principles. Let’s see what they are.

The first principle that must be followed when preparing a psychological report is that Things should be explained as briefly as possible, without detours so that those who read or listen to this report can understand it without difficulty.

The second principle to follow is do not use too many technical terms in order to appear more professional or even scientific, so it is most advisable to use simple language to facilitate the understanding of the report by those to whom it is addressed.

The third principle is that The speech used in the report must be adapted to the person or people to whom it is directed so they can understand it.

By way of conclusion, any of the different types of psychological report must follow the guidelines of clarity, brevity and adequate exposition.

Examples of psychological reports

Types of psychological report according to the medium of transmission

Below we will explain the different types of psychological report classified according to their means of transmission, there being two fundamental means: oral and written.

1. Oral or verbal report

This is one of the types of psychological report that is used through a return interview in which the information obtained about them is returned in a structured way to the person evaluated.

In the oral or verbal report, three objectives are followed to apply it correctly:

2. Written report

The normally written report It is used as a complement to the oral report to facilitate clarification and make any clarifications that are considered necessary with respect to the oral report Therefore, the principles to follow in the oral report must also be taken into account when preparing a written report.

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One aspect to keep in mind is that when using psychological terms in any report, they must be detailed so that the patient understands what the psychologist is referring to because patients often use psychological terms incorrectly. In this way, misunderstandings between the psychotherapist and the patient can be avoided.

It is very important that written reports be signed and signed by the psychologist who carried it out.

Types of psychological report according to the objective of the evaluation

Depending on the objective and purpose of the evaluation, there are 3 different types of psychological report that we will briefly explain below.

1. Psychological evaluation report

This psychological report It is used for the purpose of further diagnosis so that this report must include the explanation of the diagnosis in a clear and precise manner so that the patient to whom it is directed can understand it without difficulties, as well as a series of recommendations must be added for the corresponding psychological treatment that should be received to achieve an improvement or a change.

2. Selection or orientation report

The main objective of this type of psychological report is to propose to the subject being evaluated a profession or professions for which he or she might be more suitable based on the skills he or she has demonstrated to have and having taken into account your personal preferences and interests in this regard.

Another objective of this type of report would be to provide the evaluated subject with the final conclusion with an explanation of the reasons why he or she has been accepted or not to perform a certain job for which he or she aspires, which is why he or she has been evaluated.

These people selection or orientation reports, commonly used in the area of ​​Human Resources, They are also frequently called psychological evaluation reports just like the one explained above for diagnosis in the field of clinical psychology.

3. Intervention report

This type of report is made when the psychologist has received a request to carry out a psychological evaluation in order to carry out an intervention with the patient to help you make changes after going to therapy. In this case, a final report should be prepared in which the results obtained through the therapy sessions are communicated to the patient.

  • Related article: “What is psychotherapy? Main characteristics of this process”

Types of psychological report according to the context of its professional application

Depending on the context in which it is applied, there may be 5 types of psychological report, how we will apply them below.

1. Clinical report

Clinical reports are the most frequently produced in psychology since a high percentage of psychology graduates opt for the two variants that exist in Spain to be able to provide psychological therapy to patients: obtain a place through the PIR exam (internal resident psychologist) to work in the hospital environment or performing a master’s degree in general health psychology (MPGS), which is taught in both public and private universities, whose purpose is to enable psychologists to be able to provide psychological therapy in the private sphere (for example, psychology offices).

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That is why the clinical report It is the one with the greatest number of studies, research, articles and book chapters in which it is explained how it should be applied so that it is effective and the objectives that are intended to be achieved with its application are achieved, thus there are various methods for its application.

Below we will present an example of a clinical report, this being the clinical report proposed by the Center for Applied Psychology of the Autonomous University of Madrid, which It has the following sections:

  • Personal data of the patient or consultant.
  • Membership number and name of the psychologist.
  • Data of the center or institution in which it is carried out.
  • Date of start and end of the evaluation.
  • Summary description of the patient’s request.
  • Evaluation instruments and areas that have been evaluated.
  • Results that were obtained and conclusions.
  • The diagnosis according to the DSM-5 can be added in the conclusions section, if relevant.
  • Treatment objectives, previously condensed with the patient.
  • The proposal for psychological intervention.
  • The informed consent, having been clarified to the patient.
  • Date of its issuance, along with the signature of both (psychologist and patient).

There are several models of psychological report; However, there is no one that is more valid than others, so it is important that, whichever one is chosen, keep in mind that this must help the psychologist organize all the information necessary about the patient and the situation that has brought him to consultation in order to provide him with the most appropriate treatment in his particular case.

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2. Selection report

This type of reports They are usually used by psychologists who work for a company in order to evaluate applicants for jobs that are offered It is also common for these types of reports to be carried out by military psychologists within the army for future soldier candidates. These reports serve as screening in order to select a certain number of applicants for the final phase of the selection process where they must take other tests (for example, medical examination).

In these types of psychological report A series of principles must be taken into account:

  • Respect the privacy of the evaluated candidate.
  • Evaluate aptitudes and characteristics of applicants within legal margins.
  • The information in the report must be kept safe under the responsibility of the psychologist and the company.
  • It is prohibited to apply any test that undermines the integrity of the candidates.
  • Take into account brevity, simplicity and clear ideas on the part of candidates who aspire to a position.

3. Expert report

This type of report can be used by psychologists in various areas (criminal law, civil law, labor law, military law and canon law).

When preparing an expert report, the psychologist must take into account who it is intended for, because it is a very relevant factor when writing it. depending on the quality, quality and quantity of the information collected therein (for example, a prosecutor or a judge will require the greatest amount of information that is possible to provide; while a lawyer will only require that information that he needs depending on the role he is going to play in the trial, depending on whether he acts on the side. of the defense or the prosecution).

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Below we will explain the different sections that must be included in an example of a psychological expert report:

  • Identification of the psychologist.
  • Court data.
  • The confidentiality of the report must be indicated.
  • Affiliation of the informed.
  • Data of the person who requested the report and the reasons for the request.
  • Facts that have been reported.
  • Documentation of the summary that has been consulted when preparing the report.
  • Questions that have been asked to the expert.
  • Interviews carried out.
  • Brief anamnesis of the subject evaluated.
  • Current psychopathological examination of the evaluated subject.
  • Exploration through psychometric tests.
  • Results and their corresponding comment.
  • Conclusions and interferences of interest.
  • Annexes.

In the expert reports, it is worth noting that The conclusions made have very relevant and serious repercussions so this type of report represents a great responsibility for the psychologists who carry it out, since the information developed in them can be key in a criminal process.

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4. Traffic and safety report

These types of reports are those made by psychologists who They work in medical examination centers for drivers who aspire to have a driving license or who come to renew it

In the case of driving licenses, the following requirements must be taken into account to grant the driving license to the person evaluated, and these are a series of psychophysical abilities that the psychologist must evaluate through the appropriate tests, these abilities being the following: :

  • Visuomotor coordination.
  • Motion estimation.
  • Practical intelligence.
  • Multiple reaction time.

In these centers they are also carried out for those people who come to obtain or renew the license for the possession and use of firearms, the possession of potentially dangerous animals or for the possession of a recreational boat title.

5. Educational report

These types of reports are used in a psychoeducational evaluation context. in order to be able to identify the educational needs of the center’s students in which it is carried out that they have some type of difficulty in development or that they may have difficulties at the school curriculum level or for any other reason.

Therefore, the purpose of this report is to provide the student with a series of recommendations to be able to progress in the development of their abilities or to guide the student in a series of decisions regarding the options that are presented to them in the future to continue their studies. studies.